The Communist Party of China has led the people to create a new form of human civilization, which is not only the great achievement of the party’s hundred years of struggle, but also a major theoretical topic to be elucidated. To study this new form of human civilization, we must implement the principle of historical materialism. Since mankind has entered the era of civilization carried out simultaneously with the division of classes, it is inevitable that the development of human civilization is not a pure, clear and linear process, but a complex process of interweaving progress and retrogression, freedom and slavery, wealth and poverty, liberation and shackles. It is an evolution in paradox. The paradox of civilization determines the characteristics of the evolution of human civilization and the basic principles that must be followed to grasp it. The basic principles we must follow are: we must grasp the achievements of the civilized era from the bipolar opposition, grasp the trend of civilization development with the historical dialectics of inevitability and contingency, and identify the form of civilization from the organic unity of cultural tradition and social form. The human civilization created by socialism with Chinese characteristics is a new form. It can eliminate the internal paradox of ‘the civilized era’ and has strong vitality; It can face the plight of contemporary human civilization and have the leading power of practice;It can explore the way to end human ‘prehistory’ and has an incomparably broad future.